Glossary The definitions listed here are for the Key Terms as they are used in this textbook. A-C accuse: to charge someone with a crime or to claim that someone has done something wrong amend: to make changes to ancestor: a family member who came before you apprentice: a person who lives with a master craftsman to learn a trade artifact: an object made or used by people of the past banish: to send away, usually as a punishment barter: to trade; to exchange goods or services without using money boycott: a ban or refusal to buy something; when people stop buying something in order to make a point cape: a point of land that juts out into a larger body of water cardinal directions: the four main directions on a compass: north, south, east, and west century: a period of 100 years challenge: a kind of test; something that stands in a person’s way and requires hard work charter: a special paper that allows people to settle a piece of land citizen: a person who officially belongs to a country and has the rights and protection of that country colony: a settlement under the control of another nation or ruled by a more powerful country called the mother country combine: to put two or more things together; to merge commonwealth: a type of state in which the people make laws for the common good compact: an agreement or contract between two people or groups constitution: a written plan of government convention: a meeting for a special purpose cooperate: to work together for the good of all council: a group of people who meet to help govern a tribe or community craftsman: a person who is skilled in a particular craft, such as a carpenter or blacksmith culture: the way of life of a group of people D-F decade: a period of 10 years declaration: a letter, document, or statement that makes something known to everyone defend: to protect, to fight off an attacker delegate: a person chosen to represent others; a representative sent by others democracy: the type of government in which the people have the power to choose leaders and make laws disease: sickness economics: the study of how people get the goods and services they need and want elect: to choose by voting enforce: to put something into action; to cause something to happen by force ethnic: having to do with a group of people who share the same culture and traditions European: someone who lives in Europe or was born in Europe explorer: someone who travels to new places to learn about them found: to start or establish G-I geography: the study of the land and the people, animals, and plants living on it; the study of where places are located and how they are connected to each other goods: products that are made, bought, and sold government: a system of laws and rules; a group of people who make the laws and rules heritage: the culture and traditions that have been passed down to a person history: the story of the past homeland: a person’s native land (where they were born or where they came from) human feature: a feature created by humans to help them live on the land, such as a bridge, tunnel, city, or road immigrant: a person who moves to a new country to live inalienable: unable to be taken away independence: freedom from the control of another person, group, or government influence: to have an effect on something interdependence: when people or companies depend on each other for work, goods, and services interpreter: a person who changes words from one language into another language to help people understand each other intolerable: too much to take, unable to be endured J-N journal: a diary or daily record of events landmark: a natural or human feature that people can see and recognize
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